Kristian Skrede Gleditsch

Civil war in transnational perspective

Short description

This project is supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC Grant Number RES-062-23-0259).

The project is part of a larger European Collaborative Research Programme (ECRP) on 'Disaggregating Civil Wars', with partners at the Center for International Studies in Zurich and the Centre for the Study of Civil War in Oslo.

The Essex node examines how third parties and transnational linkages influence interactions between central governments and insurgents groups within a bargaining framework, where violence may occur if parties fail to reach or maintain agreements. It considers a wider range of motives and forms of third-party interventions. Whereas previous research has tended to look exclusively at state or country characteristics, the project considers what specific combinations of government and non-state actor characteristics can make peaceful settlements feasible or, alternatively, violence more likely.

The theoretical framework will inform empirical analyses of civil war, based on new disaggregated data to be compiled by the project on conflict events, peripheral groups, and transnational linkages. Through advancing the study of civil war and examining how actor network configurations shape the prospects for conflict and peace, the project allows assessing the feasibility and likely effectiveness of different peacekeeping strategies and hence contributes to more effective policies of conflict management and prevention.

The project ran from 1 October 2007 to 31 September 2010.


  • Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (principal investigator)
  • Han Dorussen (co-principal investigator)
  • Todd Landmann
  • Nils Metternich
  • Abhinay Muthoo
  • Clionadh Raleigh (2007-8)
  • Andrea Ruggeri
  • Hugh Ward

    Publications and papers

  • Böhmelt, Tobias; Nils W. Metternich, Ulrich H. Pilster, and Andrea Ruggeri. 2009. The Effectiveness of UN-Missions in Civil Wars: Disaggregating Peacekeeping Missions, 1946-2004. Manuscript, University of Essex.
  • Bove, Vincezo; Ismene Gizelis, Nils Metternich, and Andrea Ruggeri. The Effects of Rebel Leaders’ Assassination on Civil War Duration. Manuscript, Birkbeck College, University of Kent, and University of Essex.
  • ND. Buhaug, Halvard; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, Helge Holtermann, Gudrun Østby, and Andreas Forø Tollefsen. "It's the Local Economy, Stupid! Geographic Wealth Dispersion and Conflict Outbreak Location", Journal of Conflict Resolution, forthcoming.
  • Buhaug, Halvard; and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2008. Contagion or Confusion? Why Conflicts Cluster in Space. International Studies Quarterly 52 (2): 215-233.
  • Cederman, Lars-Erik; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Luc Girardin. 2009. Ethnic Triads: Assessing the Influence of Kin Groups on Civil Wars. World Politics 61(3): 403-437.
  • Cederman, Lars-Erik; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Simon Hug. 2010. Elections and Ethnic Civil Wars. Submitted.
  • Cederman, Lars-Erik and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2009. Introduction to Special Issue on 'Disaggregating Civil Wars'. Journal of Conflict Resolution 53 (4): 487-495.
  • Clauset, Aaron; Lindsay Heger, Maxwell Young, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2010. The Strategic Calculus of Terrorism: Substitution and Competition in the Israel-Palestine Conflict. Cooperation and Conflict 45(1): 6-33.
  • ND. Clauset, Aaron; Maxwell Young, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. "A Novel Explanation of the Power-Law Form of the Frequency of Severe Terrorist Events: Reply to Saperstein", Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, forthcoming.
  • Cunningham, David; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Idean Salehyan. 2009. It Takes Two: Dyadic Interactions and Civil War Duration. Journal of Conflict Resolution 53 (4): 570-597.
  • Dorussen, Han. 2009. "Ökonomische und politische Zwangsmassnahmen in ethnopolitischen Konflikt [Economic and Political Coercion in Ethno-Political Conflict]", in Margit Bussmann, Andreas Hasenclever, and Gerald Schneider (eds), Identität, Institutionen und Ökonomie: Ursachen innenpolitischer Gewalt. PVS - Politische Vierteljahresschrift, Sonderheft 43 / 2009. Wiesbaden, Germany, GWV Fachverlage, pp. 417-444.
  • Dorussen, Han and Ismene Gizelis. 2008. Into the Lion's Den: Local Responses to UN Peacekeeping. Typescript, University of Essex.
  • Dorussen, Han. 2007. Introducing PKOLED: Peacekeeping Operations Locations and Event Dataset. Typescript, University of Essex.
  • Gizelis, Ismene; Han Dorussen, and Andrea Ruggeri. 2009. Conflict and UN peacekeeping: Disaggregating Level of Conflict over Time. Manuscript, University of Essex.
  • Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. 2007. Transnational Dimensions of Civil War. Journal of Peace Research 44 (3):293-309.
  • Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. 2008. Civil War and its Spread. In Handbook on Conflict Resolution, edited by J. Bercovitch, V. Kremenyuk and I. W. Zartman. London: Sage.
  • Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. ND. Entries on "Civil War" and "Data, Spatial" in Bertrand Badie, Dirk Berg-Schlosser, and Leonardo Morlino (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Political Science. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede and Kyle C. Beardsley. 2010. Issues in International Data Collection. In International Studies Encyclopedia, Volume VII, edited by R. Denemark. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 4705-4725.
  • Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede and Andrea Ruggeri. 2010. Political Opportunity Structures, Democracy, and Civil War. Journal of Peace Research 47(3): 299-310.
  • Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Idean Salehyan, and Kenneth Schultz. 2008. Fighting at Home, Fighting Abroad: How Civil Wars Lead to Interstate Disputes. Journal of Conflict Resolution 52 (4):479-506.
  • Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Julian Wucherpfenning, Simon Hug, and Karina Reigstad. 2011. Polygyny or Misogyny? Reexamining the 'First Law of Intergroup Conflict'. Journal of Politics 73(1): 1-6.
  • Goemans, Henk (Hein) E.; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Giacomo Chiozza. 2009. Introducing Archigos: A Dataset of Political Leaders. Journal of Peace Research 46(2): 269-283.
  • Hegre, Håvard; Gudrun Østby, and Clionadh Raleigh. 2009. Poverty and Civil War Events: A Disaggregated Study of Liberia. Journal of Conflict Resolution 53(4): 598-623.
  • Jensen, Peter Sandholt and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2009. Rain, Growth, and Civil War: The Importance of Location. Defence and Peace Economics 20(5): 359-372.
  • Landmann, Todd and Marco Larizza. 2009. Inequality and Human Rights: Who Controls What When and How. International Studies Quarterly 53 (3): 715-736.
  • Metternich, Nils. 2008. In the Shadow of Elections: Interventions, Democratization, and the Duration of Civil Wars. Presented at Annual Meeting of the Peace Science Society, Claremont, 24-26 October.
  • Metternich, Nils. 2009. Civil War Outcome, Democratization, and Ethnic Support. Presented at ECPR General Conference, Potsdam, 10-12 September.
  • Metternich, Nils. 2010. Spatial Effects of Democratization on Civil War Onset. Prepared for Annual Convention International Studies Association, New Orleans, 17-20 February.
  • Metternich, Nils, Andrea Ruggeri and Julian Wucherpfennig. 2010. Civil War Onset and Recurrence: Implementing a Split-population Estimation Framework. SGIR Pan-European International Relations Conference 9-11 September, Stockholm.
  • Metternich, Nils and Julian Wucherpfennig 2009. Rebel Group Interdependence and the Duration of Civil War. Prepared for the Annual Meeting of the Peace Science Society, Chapel Hill, 20-22 November.
  • Muthoo, Abhinay. 2008. Stable Coalitions in a State of Anarchy. Typescript, University of Essex.
  • O'Loughlin, John O. and Clionadh Raleigh. 2007. The Political Geography of War in K. Cox, M. Low and J. Robinson (eds.) A Handbook of Political Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • O'Loughlin, John O. and Clionadh Raleigh. 2010. Spatial Analysis of Civil War. in International Studies Encyclopedia, edited by R. Denemark. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Raleigh, Clionadh and Henrik Urdal. 2007. Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Armed Conflict, Political Geography 26(6):674-694.
  • Raleigh, Clionadh; Lisa Jordan, and Idean Salehyan. 2008. Climate Change, Migration and Conflict, Report for World Bank Social Development Group.
  • Raleigh, Clionadh and Håvard Hegre. 2008. Introducing ACLED: An Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset, Typescript.
  • Raleigh, Clionadh. 2008. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Testing the Relationship between Physical Geography and Civil Conflict. Typescript.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea. 2008. Catch Me If You Can: Transnational Patterns, State Capacity and Duration of Civil War. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Italian Association of Political Science (SISP), Pavia, Italy, 3 September- 4 September.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea. 2008. Take Your Time, Take Your Space: Spatial Dimensions, Conflict History and the Onset of Civil War. Paper presented at the ISA conference, San Francisco, USA, 26-30 March.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea. 2010. Geografia Politica del Conflitto Libanese [Political Geography of the Lebanese Conflict]. In Stefano Costalli and Francesco Moro. Guerre Civili [Civil Wars] Milano: Vita e Pensiero.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea. 2010. Political Entrepreneurs, Diffusion, and Escalation of Violence: The Case of Lebanon 1975-1978. Typescript, University of Essex.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea; Ismene Gizelis, and Han Dorussen. 2008. If you Don't Succeed the First Time, Try and Try Again: Event Data and Inter-coder Reliability. Manuscript, University of Essex.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea; Ismene Gizelis, and Han Dorussen. 2010. Event Data as Bismarck’s Sausages? Intercoder Reliability, Coder Selection and Data Quality. Manuscript, resubmission invited.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea; Ismene Gizelis, and Han Dorussen. 2010. Managing Mistrust: Responses to UN Peacekeeping in Africa. Paper presented at the ISA conference, New Orleans, USA, 17-20 February.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea and Willem Schudel. 2010. Foreign Aid, Domestic Corruption, and the Onset of Domestic Conflict. Paper presented at the ISA conference, New Orleans, USA, 17-20 February.
  • Ruggeri, Andrea and Willem Schudel. 2010. Foreign Aid and the Duration of Civil War. Manuscript, University of Essex and University of Amsterdam.
  • Salehyan, Idean, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and David E. Cunningham. 2011. Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups, International Organization, forthcoming.
  • Schultz, Kenneth; Idean Salehyan, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2008. Two Sides of the Same Coin? Exploring the Endogeneity between Civil War and Interstate Disputes. Typescript, Stanford University, University of North Texas, and University of Essex.
  • Weidmann, Nils B.; Doreen Kuse, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2010. The Geography of the International System: The CShapes Dataset. International Interactions 36(1):86-106.
  • Weidmann, Nils B. and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2010. Mapping and Measuring Country Shapes: The cshapes Package. R Journal 2(1): 18-23.
  • Wucherpfennig, Julian; Nils Metternich, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Lars-Erik Cederman. 2010. Ethnicity, the State, and the Duration of Civil Wars. Jan Tinbergen Peace Science Conference 28-30 June, Amsterdam.

    Documents and announcements

      Download: The Essex ESRC proposal description in PDF format.

      Download: The joint ESF proposal description in PDF format.

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